The first supercomputer is generally considered to be the CDC 6600, built in 1964 by Control Data Corporation.
The first High-Performance Computing (HPC) partnership began in 1985 when the National Science Foundation established a partnership between five research centers: San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) at University of California San Diego, the Pittsburgh Supercomputer Center (PSC) at the University of Pittsburgh, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois Champagne-Urbana, the Cornell Theory Center at Cornell University, and the John von Neumann Center at Princeton University.
NPACI and The Alliance
In 1997, the NSF announced two new supercomputing partnerships, the National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure (NPACI) and the National Computational Science Alliance (NCSA). Funding for these partnerships was limited to five years.
The TeraGrid: the first Distributed Terascale Facility
The next iteration of HPC partnerships was the TeraGrid, established in 2001. TeraGrid funding was also limited to five years. A sixth year extension was provided to bridge the gap between the TeraGrid and the XSEDE partnership which was awarded funding in 2011. Funding was for five years, until 2016, at which time XSEDE 2 was established.